STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE WESTERN PAINTING IN TURKEY

Işıl SAVAŞER

The formation and developments of the developments in the field of plastic arts in our country, based on a traditional understanding and on a national line, are targeted in the article. It is observed that these formations reflect a synthesis effort aiming at national modernization and reaching universal dimensions. The renewed efforts identified as the Westernization process in Turkey, form the only factor in determining changes in the area in the form of prejudice that was thought to bring Europe together. The original forms of historical Turkish art, especially in Islamic times, have been influential as a dynamic element in the renewal process. The phenomenon of modernization gained speed from the nationalism scale adopted by the intellectuals, and by separating the cosmopolitan elements within it, a brand new synthesis aimed at the universal was created. The orientation towards a new synthesis in art in historical or contemporary periods paved the way for creating new, original models by fusing with cosmopolitan and foreign influences and sorting them out. In the 19th century, the military painters, who had a share in all major events in the field of art, were especially important and the reasons for their establishment was that these painters played a major role in the political propaganda of the Turkish state administration, which turned to the Republican regime. Military artists represented the goals reflected in the field of art and culture in the new political awareness. The military artists movement, which started in the first half of the 19th century, was also supported by the Palace circles, whose relations with the West have been established since the early 18th century.

Miniature art, which has been effective in Ottoman painting for centuries, has formed a strong painting tradition. In the development of Turkish painting, which has a solid tradition since the 19th century, social values ​​and progress throughout the periods have been effective. First of all, the studies in the Western understanding of painting were shaped by the work of military painters. Turkish painting was limited to foreigners, minorities and the periphery of the palace in the early periods.

It is known that painting education in Military Schools has made important contributions to the development of Turkish painting art in our country. These artists constitute the basis of Turkish painting art. Our military painters, who started training in the Ottoman Empire Engineering Center from the beginning of the 19th century, contributed to the art of Turkish painting. They have revealed their own unique styles. The painters who opened up to the West in the following periods transferred their experiences and experiences to other artists in our country. Towards the end of the 19th century's first industrial-i Nefise of schools in Turkey (School of Fine Arts) with the opening, the artist studied painting in our country with the exception of military development, there has been a significant milestone.

The fact that Turkish artists received art education in the West, learned their understanding of Western painting, and grasped their styles, was realized thanks to our painters who worked devotedly on this subject. The generation of painters of military origin, who had important influences in the history of Ottoman painting, gradually became civilian in time thanks to the 1914 Generation, and left its place to groups formed by civilian painters with the establishment of the Republic.

Artist groups such as Yeniler, They group and D group were the pioneers of the development in Turkish painting art before 1950. In the later periods, II. Turkish artists were also influenced by the abstract painting seen in Europe after World War II.

Great progress has been made in still life, landscape and portrait subjects in paint paintings. In fact, the success and solid foundations of Turkish painting today were laid by our first artists who worked before and after the Republic. Developments in Turkish art have formed the phenomenon of modernization, which is interlocked with historical and traditional data, within a unique chain of progress and continuity.

Keywords: Sanayi-i Nefise, impressionism, portrait, landscape, military school