Both in English and Turkish historiography, the issue of Mehmet Ali Pasha of Egypt and its aftermath are always portrayed as a consequence of Ottoman weakness and Mahmud II's despair.
Nevertheless, the long course of events such as this that took place between the Sultan and his Governor was considered by the Ottoman administration as a series of military defeats. At the same time, it is obvious that this was clearly a process of reform when the diplomatic manoeuvres of Mahmud II and his civil servants, and their cooperation with European countries (esp the UK) with a view to raise the State from its dire conditions, took place.
Following a short introduction on Mahmud II's reformist character, this essay will focus on the works of the Sultan and his men on the reforms in the new era following the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi (1833-1839), made in cooperation with chiefly the UK but also with all other European countries in every field. This study will use Ottoman documents in detail on a year-to-year basis.
Key Words: Mahmud II, Ottoman Diplomacy, The Ottoman Empire and Reform, Anglo-Ottoman Cooperation, The Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi