THE HEJAZ FRONT AND MEDINA DEFENSE IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Levent ÜNAL

The fight during the First World War was mainly against Arab rebels in the Hejaz, Yemen and Asir fronts where the Ottoman Empire fought. Among these fronts, the Hejaz front is important in terms of its strategic importance and hosting the sacred lands.

Although the footsteps of the Arab revolt in the Hejaz region were clearly heard, the Ottoman administration ignored. The chain of mistakes that started with the appointment of Sharif Hussein as the Emir of Mecca continued with the ignorance of his cooperation with the British and his provocation of other tribes against the Ottoman Empire under his leadership over time. Being so tolerant of betrayal and almost ignoring the problem made the Ottoman State pay a heavy price.

When the existing forces in the Mecca region were disintegrated and many garrisons, barracks and police stations were dispersed, the garrisons were left helpless against the crowded rebel forces, and Fahrettin Pasha used the forces in his hands as a whole in the Medina region, striking the Arab rebels one after another. However, the successful execution of the Medina Defense did not contribute to the Palestinian front, and every reinforcement unit sent to Madinah made the defense on this front somewhat difficult.

The purpose of the article is to provide a strategic, operational and tactical assessment of the Hejaz front, examining the events before the uprising and the conflicts that took place after the uprising. The literature review method and a qualitative research model were used in this study.

Key Words: First World War, Hejaz Front, Fahrettin Pasha, Medina Defense, Arab Revolt