THE RISE OF REALISM THEORY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT STAGES

Dursun Murat DÜZGÜN

Realism is one of the oldest paradigms in the field of International Relations and International Economic Politics. It has a very significant role in the practical field of economic politics. The analysis of international politics with no regard to realism is almost impossible. The main principles realist writers have in common from international ecomomic politics are national interests, the central role of the state in directing economic activities, and the importance of creating a feasible commercial balance for improvement and increase of welfare. Realism begins with states as the primary actors in international system. The anarchy hypothesis of realism is in the center of theory of inter-state cooperation. Anarchy is the order principle of international system. Anarchy is not chaos; it foresees competition and clash among states and therefore underlines the need to create cooperation. International institutions may help to facilitate such a cooperation between states. Realism is a significant theory having dominated international relations since World War II. It rests upon strong views as regards power politics and maintenance of national interests. Realism and neo-realism conceptualize structural power as the total amount of capability a state has. State leaders may have moralistic tendencies, but they should not allow moral concerns to guide foreign policy. The emergence and development stages of realism theory as the main stream of international relations are discussed in this study. In this study, a qualitative research has been conducted and document analysis method, especially critical discourse analysis, has been applied. In conclusion, it can be alleged that realist ideas continue to inform foreign economic policy all over the world. In practice, realism inspires current protectionist policies and state-centered approaches towards economic development and growth worldwide.

Keywords: International Relations, International Economic Politics, Realism, Phases of Realism, Neo-Realism