THE HASHEMITE BUREAUCRATS PLAYING ROLE IN THE RULE OF IRAQ IN 19TH CENTURY IN THE CONTEXT OF OTTOMANS’ POLICY OF THE MIDDLE EAST

Levent KÜÇÜK

After the Ottoman Empire took the control of Iraq, Ottoman regime prevailed in this region. Hashemite held the high ground since Abbasids and kept their leading position during the sovereignty of Ottomans as well. Especially, some revolts occurred in the domain of Ottomans under the leadership of Mecca sheriff Huseyin Hashemite as a result of English people’s increasing interest in the region earlier before the First World War. As a consequence, the domination of Ottomans came to an end at the end of the First World War. Ottomans tended to build their administration in Iraq via the important tribes of the region. During the 19th century political developments, they kept the centralization policy in Iraq allowing the tribes named Caf, Hemavend and the Berzenci to have an authority on public order and tax system. They also gave these tribes opportunity to establish relationship with the Porte. This study aims to analyze Hashemite’s relationships with Ottoman regime in the light of Ottoman archive of documents and what kind of responsibilities they took to build domination in the region.

Key Words: Hashemite, Iraq, 19th Century, Tariq, Middle East