SOME REGULATIONS MADE BY THE OTTOMANS CONCERNING THE RIVERS AND LAKES IN THE REFORM PERIOD

Levent KÜÇÜK

From the very beginnings of 14th century, the Ottomans gained knowledge and experience during the rule of Mediterranean and Black Sea region, providing them with great advantages in the later years as they took over the mariner practices from the western Anatolian seigniors. The empire, which gained the sea rule, did not only make regulations concerning the economic activity and transportation strategy on seas but also rivers and lakes all over the empire. Moreover, military practises were developed by navigation logistics on the lakes and rivers. Ottomans intended to resume the territories they lost and systematise not only the road traffic but also the potential benefit of sea routes by enacting marine law including the regulation of marine activities. This study aims to highlight what kind of efforts were spent by the Ottomans to revitalise the sea trade on the rivers and lakes in spite of the marine technology used by the big powers. Also, what kind of cautions were taken by the Ottomans to stop the danger of overflows appearing in spring and their solution of finding the ways of creating favourable conditions for agricultural activities making use of the rivers will be explored.

Keywords: River, Lake, Modernization, Ottomans ,Reform Era, General Havg